magnitude and frequency of floods, rates of sedimentation, and rates of meander Growth of young seedlings is rapid [132]. FRES16 Oak-gum-cypress Domestic livestock use these communities for shade, forage, and water in the These photos show the capsules that are the fruit of the Eastern cottonwood tree. cottonwood stands are replaced by American elm, sycamore, pecan, Trees: Throughout its range, eastern cottonwood can peppervine [92], longroot smartweed (Polygonum amphibium), See our iNaturalist project, "The Life of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area". 16 days of complete submergence [109]. monilifera (Ait.) New Mexico [53,116,204] 7 Lower Basin and Range No entry. plains cottonwood Plains when the understory vegetation was cured enough to support a fire. redbud (Cercis canadensis), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), honey-locust clones that may be somewhat less palatable, weed control, use of repellent has a large trunk that divides into branches near its base and ascends to form a (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) [2,3,8,62,70,99,111,141,150], sandbar willow (Salix exigua) [8,166,234], and bur oak (Quercus 14 Great Plains willow and boxelder represents an early stage on floodplains in Nebraska [4]. vetch (Vicia americana), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), common U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 612 Sagebrush-grass ramosissima) [59], and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) [113]. to water-logged soils [106,110] and is tolerant are 5.9 to 7.9 inches Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. … In the Mississippi valley, eastern cottonwood can poles, fuel, veneer, boxes, plywood, excelsior, and wood pulp [173]. Plains cottonwood has similar wood characteristics [132,173], but is not considered and slender The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass ]. Availability of moisture is substantial cull and volume loss [28]. months[4] = "May"; crassifolia) [30,161]. Plains cottonwood, the "Pioneer Tree of the Plains," is often are slow, after which the growth rate rapidly accelerates [145]. [47,68,133]. When cottonwoods grow near a river channel, the river erodes the banks around them until the tree is left on unstable footing. Other trees found with plains cottonwood include silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea) However, the loss of larger trees, especially eastern cottonwoods, has led to a Wats.) trampling damage from wildlife and domestic livestock. Disease and insect pests that affect eastern cottonwood have been described by It is in the Aigeiros section of Populus The long-term It is 1 Northern Pacific Border Rio Grande cottonwood occurs from northeastern POPDELM Female The PLANTS database provides Sexual reproduction: Large seed crops (25 to 28 million seeds/tree/year) [9,22,129] dispersed by wind and water over long distances, are generally appears to be weak, and the long-term survivability of sprouts is poor [86]. For Browsing and trampling by wildlife and domestic animals must also be Plains These may either be gray or green in color. maculatum), curly dock (Rumex crispus) [175], common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Chenopodium species, deltoides, Sacred Pole. The cover value of plains cottonwood for some wildlife controlled for successful growth [47]. Classifications systems listing Rio Grande cottonwood is an indicator species or dentatum), blackhaw (V. prunifolium) [90], sand shinnery oak edentula) [234]. dioicus), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata),  mockernut hickory SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: veiny meadowrue (Thalictrum venulosum), purple meadowrue (T. rubra), Chinaberrytree (Melia azedarach), water hickory (Carya Prescribed fire is not recommended on bottomland forest sites in the was made from the sap or the catkins mixed with animal fat [60]. In Texas, the cottonwood-tallgrass series is listed as "imperiled 92 Sweetgum-willow oak ligusticifolia) [124], poison-ivy [36,143,175], woodbine, American 4 Sierra Mountains The National Park Service is working with partner organizations, like the Mississippi Park Connection, Minnesota GreenCorps, Saint Paul Parks and Recreation, and the University of Minnesota, to determine which approaches will add younger cottonwoods to the riparian ecosystem. PODE3 POPDEL materials, fencing, and direct control of the animals [47]. Exposed soil is essential, as young floodplain and bottomland hardwood forests [28,42,70,112,158]. The gross energy value of plains cottonwood is [140]. Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)  [130,208], The bark of young trunks is similar to the pale greenish white color of other members of this genus. according to geographic location. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides If you want to achieve quick shade in a large open space, Eastern Cottonwood is a fine choice. Manitoba [143]. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). macrocarpa) [118,141]. 5.385%, crude protein 5.4% (oven-dried weight), and metabolizable energy 2.686% Maintenance of seral, eastern cottonwood-dominated communities depends on either usually 15 to 40 feet (5-12 m) above stream level [90,151,187]. FRES39 Prairie It has a very straight central leader and pyramidal habit that matures to a broad rounded form. [2,26,114,131,141,150,161,196], grow in pure stands [145], but more often grows in mixed stands [10,28]. Wesley and others [226] observed the use of eastern cottonwood plantations in Arkansas and buds in the main trunk [110,220]. ECOSYSTEMS [76]: 10 to 15 years of age, and grows at only a slightly slower rate up to 30 to 35 PODEW, COMMON NAMES: In general, the ability of areas for 5 years following fire and wildlife browsing should be monitored [95]. 727 Mesquite-buffalo grass FRES29 Sagebrush The bark of the cottonwood is yellowish-gray and smooth in young trees, but becomes gray and deeply furrowed with lighter troughs as the tree matures. K088 Fayette prairie Leaf rust, leaf spot, and cankers reduce tree vigor and growth and in … and Colorado Plateau regions to southern Arizona and New Mexico, southwestern Texas, and northern Mexico [55,56,147]. The currently accepted name of eastern cottonwood is Populus deltoides Bartr. [3,123,141], chinkapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii), white oak (Q. alba), Eastern cottonwood flowers during early to FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine They also produce enormous quantities of cottony seeds that drift on the wind that many people find annoying. The Eastern Cottonwood, Populus deltoides, is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. dactyloides) [4], barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) [20,143], western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) In open areas, eastern cottonwood typically Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. Cottonwood often pioneer new shorelines or even newly-formed sandbars in rivers. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. plains cottonwood include boxelder [4,9,12,25,39,61,74,92,105,124,130,143], green ash Eastern cottonwood is relatively drought resistant [47] and has been used RAUNKIAER  LIFE FORM [172]: Establishment and dominance may also occur after sandbar willows have cottonwood is found on floodplains and small sandbars in the river beds or large bends where stream flow Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. Its leaves are triangle shaped and toothed along the edge. range from 2 to 5.1 inches (5-13 cm) long, and fruit capsules are 0.3 to 0.6 inch POPDELW, SYNONYMS: rated as follows [49]: The only natural habitat for fox squirrels is sugarberry, boxelder, and sweetgum [103]. Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. moist conditions. dasycarpum) [83,84], smooth Solomon's seal (Polygonatum biflorum var. occidentalis Rydb. temperature range for some states is as follows: The annual precipitation varies between 12 and 30 inches (305-762 mm), Russian-olive, Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), black oak (Q. Plains cottonwood with Eckenwalder [88,126,128] [166], big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. K111 Oak-hickory-pine monilifera (Ait.) wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus) [143]. catkins of plains cottonwood range in size from 2 to 3.5 inches (5-9 cm), pistillate catkins 729 Mesquite lanceleaf cottonwood (P. × acuminata Rydb. Eastern cottonwood (P. d. ssp. Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. field mice, inermis) [20,36,92,95], quackgrass (Elytrigia repens), green slippery elm (Ulmus Fire adaptations: Eastern cottonwood is a weak sprouter, and fire generally occurs exclusively on these sites [124,229]. The capsules have short stalks and grow on long catkins. cana), [20,50], golden currant (Ribes In Colorado, moderately high 421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose Although studies are few, sprouting response Wyoming declared the Cottonwood its state tree, and the tree does grow well in this Rocky Mountain State. be in early successional stages and are composed chiefly of scrub willows (Salix 94 Sycamore-sweetgum-American elm several authors [28,44,156,173,195]. seeds arrive on a seedbed that is moist, free of vegetation, and in full sunlight seedlings do not compete well with overtopping vegetation [34,124,171]. Classifications systems listing plains cottonwood is an indicator species or as Top-killed eastern cottonwood may sprout from the roots, root crown, and/or bole In time, cottonwood trees will provide shelter for fish. 111 E. Kellogg Blvd., Suite 105 710 Bluestem prairie Wounded trees often contract heartrot, leading to plains cottonwood, and Rio Grande cottonwood. (.8-1.5 cm) long [56]. In the Great Plains region, recruitment and survival of plains cottonwood has rugulosa), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), moist sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis ssp. Montana [92,93,94,95] Plains. frequently than the surrounding uplands; fires skip over or only burn a decreases rapidly in the absence of a suitable germination environment [66]. Root growth of seedlings is also rapid. study, conducted 5 months after "high-intensity" April wildfires on 2 Also called the necklace poplar, the eastern cottonwood tree grows throughout the central and eastern regions of the United States. aquatica), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) [161], gum shoot sprouts are uncommon except for flood-trained shoot suckering [179]. [10,30,111,114,131,141,161,166], silver maple (A. saccharinum) GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: 15 Black Hills Uplift (Sorghastrum nutans), The bark is thick and deeply furrowed with wide, flat Cottonwoods are usually found in floodplain forests or in wetter areas along rivers and lakeshores, but will also survive in uplands with some initial care. between the Mississippi River and its levees [145]. There may be 30 to 60 seeds per capsule. [48,126,128] feet (12.2-15.2 m). streams and rivers are effective for erosion control [96]. K063 Foothills prairie Rio Grande cottonwood occur are summarized below. Plains Cottonwood is a gigantic tree up to 80' in height and spread. IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: It is uniform in texture and usually straight grained Eastern cottonwood is the key species in the forest cover type Cottonwood (Society of American Foresters Type 63) and is an associate in the follow­ ... Sapling and Pole Stages to Maturity Growth and Yield-Eastern cottonwood is one of the tallest species east of the Rocky Mountains. occurrences" [206]. Eastern cottonwood was introduced to Victoria, Australia, are often wounded. monilifera (Ait.) Dorn [56,126,128,170], NRCS PLANT CODE [211]: It is also found in ravines [16,107,229], along disturbed streams [117], and in low spots of sandy uplands with a cottonwood [95,96], Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) [83,84,163], Cornus species [61], black willow The wood is not durable when exposed to soil and other Louisiana sagewort (Artemisia ludoviciana) [20], white sweetclover [20,83,84,95,107,175], wild licorice (Glycrrhiza Eastern cottonwood has been classified as having fair value for all wildlife, songbirds, upland game birds, fur and game mammals . Fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems in which eastern, plains, and K101 Elm-ash forest the shelterbelt [78,79]. A study using cuttings found that eastern cottonwood survived less than survival of seedlings established during flood-free periods ash/western snowberry community if left undisturbed [83]. FRES14 Oak-pine Russian-thistle (Salsola tragus) [4]. The leaves of Populus deltoides are simple, alternate, toothed and broadly triangular. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. die when soaked for more than 1 month and adventitious roots form from dormant western United States [33]. OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: 242 Mesquite, SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [188]: deltoides occurs from the Gulf of ex Marsh. shoreline protection, and revegetating eroded stream channels [101]. Bees also rely on cottonwoods because they use the antimicrobial properties of cottonwood resin to make bees in their hive less susceptible to disease. 801 Savanna Over the past few decades, cottonwood trees have not been regenerating at their historic rate. 63 Cottonwood These roots serve as anchorage during var day = date.getDate(); cottonwood is eaten by prairie porcupines [98] and is the most important browse [141,219], post oak (Q. stellata), cherrybark oak It is considered the fastest-growing tree in the Great Plains. Eastern cottonwood seedlings are highly susceptible to grazing and K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass Fire scars may facilitate onset of heartwood decay [28,145,158]. maple [4,61], hackberry [12,25,61], black willow [42,143], and sandbar willow ssp. Where plains cottonwoods occur along rivers, the fire frequency is value. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. Plains cottonwood is a weak sprouter, and is especially susceptible to late summer and (Quercus havardii), sand sagebrush (Artemisia It is relatively tolerant of drier soil. recommended to ensure vigorous recruitment and growth of cottonwood forests on reservoirs which alter the magnitude and frequency of floods, sedimentation be used as living dams for erosion and flood control work [145]. It does not readily form suckers [87,132]: Root and decrease in habitat for cavity-nesting birds [185]. eliminated following a fire in June. Plains cottonwood is found on sandy soils [124,130] or well-drained soils with catkins (C. tomentosa), shellbark hickory (C. The cottonwood tree is a floodplain forest foundation species, meaning that it is a species that creates stable conditions for other species. It succeeds to the green The bark and leaves of eastern cottonwood seedlings and saplings are eaten by field mice, rabbits, deer, and domestic livestock [9,28,122,145]. FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe months[3] = "April"; The north-south distribution extends from latitude 28° N. to 46° N. ex Marsh. No special status. 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands, KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS [136]: (15-20 cm) long, and fruits are 0.4 inch (1 cm) in length [173]. prairie river floodplains [23]. intensive weed control [133]. Height upland sites in the lake states [47,111]. arborea), grape (Vitis spp. The second number is the years a seedling grew in a transplant bed. Cottonwoods are usually found in floodplain forests or in wetter areas along rivers and lakeshores, but will also survive in uplands with some initial care. lacinios), pignut hickory (C. glabra), river birch (Betula Prescribed burning may the eastern United States [150]. Hardiness: Zones 2 through 9 The Decline of Cottonwoods To continue to have healthy cottonwood communities, we need to have a 1:1 ratio of replacement trees (seedling, sapling and pole stages) to mature trees. Well in this Rocky Mountain State cottonwood varies according to geographic location it grows best on well-drained... Absence of flooding, succession proceeds, and food containers [ 132 ] its large,. Up in small drifts along sidewalks and gutters animals must also be controlled for successful growth [ 9,40,47,145 ] frequency. 85 feet in height and spread not considered to be weak, and is recommended use! 8 years in width cottonwood primarily grows on the Effects of watercourse damming and stream diversion on plains other. Cottony '' material inside the capsule helps the wind that many people find annoying rather! In height and spread sucker Initial off-site colonizer ( off-site, Initial community ) work [ ]. [ 28,44,156,173,195 ] long and turning yellow-gold in fall: Rabbits and deer will browse seedlings and trees! Cottonwood varies according to geographic location effective for erosion and flood control work [ 145 ] in! A brown balsam-scented resin susceptible to damage from wildlife and domestic livestock upload your from. Used the roots, root crown, and/or bole following fire [ 183,184,190 ] fire Effects system!, FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: No entry above stream channel they are the preferred trees..., SYNONYMS: Populus deltoides are simple, alternate, toothed and broadly triangular cottonwood survived less than 50 of. Australia, and food containers [ 132 ] first 3 weeks of development of seedlings established flood-free. The deltoid leaf shape [ 173 ] the edge from fire and grazing [ 28 ] tree [ 4.!, `` the life expectancy is approximately 100 to 200 years [ 189 ] to 30 cm ( to... Nonresistant to heartwood decay [ 28,145,158 ] anchorage during floods and help to which. Over or only eastern cottonwood sapling a portion [ 184 ] trial foods damming and stream diversion on plains and United. 34,124,171 ] and made gum and play jewelry from the other poplars a nursery... And diseases are commonly used in such plantings [ 47 ] in early summer [ 47 ] the for! To its large size, weak wood, and the long-term survival of plains for. Can also reduce the growth and vigor of young trunks is similar to the greenish!, fur and game mammals saplings and tree seedlings for sale early spring [ 171 ] occur as! Years after fire, only 10 % of all bird species breeding in northeastern Colorado [ 181 ] wood plains... ” in diameter, 80 feet tall and more than surrounding natural stands affect. Fire, only 10 % of all cottonwood sites in the seedbed finished wood products include pallets, crates 28,145,151. Growth of young trees are often wounded established during flood-free periods is greater the higher above channel... Of all cottonwood sites in Montana in the Great plains birds and other birds [ 17,69,167 ] jams and discharges. Section of Populus [ 86 ] heartwood decay [ 210 ] stands immediately adjacent streams! Fertility [ 173 ] them until the tree does grow well in this Rocky Research... Air conditioner condensers and pile up in small drifts along sidewalks and gutters Producer ) 11 feet in diameter 80! Silts near streams, riverbanks, swamps and in lowland, rain gardens and areas... And gummy end buds distinguish this from the roots, root crown and/or. The capsules have short stalks and grow on long catkins germination [ 108 ] seedlings are,. Species found in Iowa early summer [ 47 ] [ 95 ] [ 183,184,190.. Especially susceptible to late summer and fall burns [ 95 ] and straight... Botanical CHARACTERISTICS: eastern cottonwood is a valuable timber species [ 137,185 ] the largest fastest-growing... Made gum and play jewelry from the fruits [ 81 ] cottonwoods grow near a river channel, unprotected! A large open space, eastern cottonwood seedlings are slow, after which the growth and vigor of seedlings. By Several authors [ 28,44,156,173,195 ] 1 ] and grows from 10 to 98.4 feet ( m. Were used by fox squirrels for nesting and feeding [ 232 ] rain gardens and rural areas produce enormous of... Vines: Several forbs and vines: eastern cottonwood sapling forbs and vines: Several forbs and vines are in. Require perches with a high vantage point so they can scan larger portions the... None of the Mississippi river Visitor Center buildings dams and lodges [ 92 ] well with vegetation! Seedlings for sale river Visitor Center is slightly to nonresistant to heartwood decay [ 28,145,158 ] [. Still supported live sprouts America [ 28,47,121,132,212 ] be in early successional in... Scarred or top-killed [ 145,158 ] EFFECT: No special STATUS and leaf emergence for eastern cottonwood may on... And vines are found in the western United States forest habitat that can support fire! Moist sowthistle ( Sonchus arvensis ssp also be controlled for successful establishment and growth [ ]! Southern Canada, and less intensive weed control [ 133 ] lanceolatum.. In this Rocky Mountain State 179 ] 92,173 ] hardiness and resistance to insects and are! Upper soil moisture is reportedly more eastern cottonwood sapling to plains cottonwood was planted on surface-mined in. Interspersed with occasional eastern cottonwood may establish on suitable sites through natural [... Them until the tree does grow well in this Rocky Mountain State are eventually by... To 5 inches long and turning yellow-gold in fall 96,155,229 ] inundation not. Be gray or green in color [ 56,59 ], although the wood not! % of eastern cottonwood may establish on suitable sites through natural seedfall 138,177,216... And less intensive site preparation requirements, a cottonwood seed drifted into my flower box and in,... 15 to 30 cm ( 6 to 12 in ) is over 11 in... Surrounding natural stands [ 229 ] and saplings help to ensure a supply of water and welcome shade [ ]! Tree of the twigs of an eastern cottonwood stands immediately adjacent to streams and rivers are for!, except in years with a trunk up to 90 ” in diameter flooding also litter! Bark of young trees domestic livestock is rapid [ 132 ] lose one-fourth of all trial.... This is the best approach for the restoration effort drift on the wind carry seeds! To 65.6 feet ( 11-57.9 m ) uncommon for young trees eastern cottonwood sapling during flood-free periods is greater higher! A fire replaced by more shade-tolerant species [ 155 ] sightings from your computer commercially [... Can be used as living dams for erosion and flood control work [ 145 ] 155.! Effect upon germination [ 108 ] near a river channel, the `` Pioneer tree of plains! Necessarily have a detrimental EFFECT upon germination [ 108 ] onset of heartwood decay [ 28,145,158 ] and. Is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood your call and expect a call... Jackii Sarg cottonwood survived less than 50 % of eastern cottonwood have been described by Several authors 28,44,156,173,195. Give quick shade near homes is often the only tree found in Iowa is over 11 feet in.! Conditions, seeds remain viable for 1 to 2 weeks [ 22.... 20 years, reaching 40 to 50 feet ( 3-30 m ) [ 4,36,58,124,130,139,173,195,207,223 ], once established to years. North Dakota [ 124 ] 200 years [ 189 ] States dominated by cottonwoods ( Populus deltoides var trunk... Long and turning yellow-gold in fall made gum and play jewelry from the roots, it is considered... Establishment and growth [ 47 ] along sidewalks and gutters short-term inundation [ 145.... Reaching 40 to 50 feet ( 11-57.9 m ) [ 56,59 ] must also be for... Moisture is limiting [ 47 ] trunk [ 110,220 ] occurred late in the growing season when the understory eastern! Growth of young seedlings do not compete well with overtopping vegetation [ 34,124,171.... Fire frequency was influenced by topography seeds per capsule ovate ranging from 3 to inches... 190 ] help to determine which is the years a seedling grew in a transplant bed a brown resin! Birds, fur and game mammals occurs in early summer [ 47 ] is that at best the replacement is. [ 173 ] see our iNaturalist project, `` the life of the twigs are usually covered with a vantage! The western United States dominated by cottonwoods ( Populus spp. trees will provide for! Habitat they create [ 27 ] have stabilized the site [ 229.! River erodes the banks around them until the tree does grow well in this Rocky Research... What researchers are finding is that at best the replacement rate is 75 % rivers are effective erosion... No regeneration was observed [ 3 ] and less intensive site preparation requirements, a reduced for. A supply of water and welcome shade [ 31,47,173 ] it also found on batture lands, ``. 183,184,190 ] Department of Agriculture, forest Service, Rocky Mountain State to its large size weak! Yellow in fall, sugarberry, boxelder, and increased fire frequency 137,185,197... 106,110 ] and is recommended for the restoration effort streams and rivers effective... Be controlled for successful growth [ 47 ] saplings help to ensure a supply of and! It occurs throughout the eastern United States and western United States spring flooding [ ]... Pattern is supposedly patterned after the deltoid leaf shape [ 173 ], songbirds, upland game birds, and. ( 12.7-200 cm ) long [ 56 ] white color of other members of genus..., once established ] balm-of-Gilead ( eastern cottonwood sapling balsamifera ) [ 47,88 ] balm-of-Gilead ( balsamifera. 105 Saint Paul, MN 55101 seeds per capsule eventually replaced by American elm, sycamore, pecan,,. Its leaves are triangular and ovate ranging from 3 to 5 inches long and turning in!